Working group 4
Online/offline practices

Boy wearing a VR headset, arms reaching out


  • To identify the current state of knowledge in the area across Europe and contextualise this within the international arena.

  • To develop a theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between children’s online and offline digital literacy practices.

  • To identify key research questions in the field for future study.

  • To identify key messages for policy makers.

Original mission statement

The WG will identify the current state of knowledge on young children’s online digital literacy practices and the relationship between their online and offline literacy practices.

It will identify research on issues relating to internet safety. It will develop new theories for literacies in virtual spaces and for explaining the relationship between online/offline literacy domains. It will synthesise research on children’s digital literacy in virtual worlds and their augmented reality play.

Finally, the WG will identify the future research agenda in this area and examine the implications of all of the areas investigated for policy in relation to education, parenting and the media industry.


Using augmented and virtual reality in the early childhood curriculum (PDF, 1.1MB)

The internet of toys: a policy brief (PDF, 594KB)

Mascheroni, G (Chair of WG4) and Aroldi, P (eds.) (2016) DigiLitEY special issue of media education: young children, touchscreens and literacy practice, 7(2), pp. 5–8. ISSN: 2038-3002.

DigiLitEY publication with Joint Research Council, EU Commission, Kaleidoscope on the internet of toys: safety, security, privacy and societal insights (full report).

See the YouTube introduction:

Marsh, J, Mascheroni, G, Carrington, V, Árnadóttir, H, Brito, R, Dias, R, Kupiainen, R and Trueltzsch-Wijnen, C (2017) The online and offline digital literacy practices of young children: a review of the literature (full report). COST Action IS1410.